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There are again two things in this authentication, they are NTLM or KERBEROS.KERBEROS needs SQL Server Service Principal Name to be registered in Active Directory agains the SQL Server node name or the SQL Server Virtual Server Name.So SQL Server Browser knows the TCP port is say 1488, it will return this information back to the requested client that SQLMOSS instance is listening on port 1488.
Now SQL Server Browser would have already read the port in which requested SQL Server Instance SQLMOSS\MSSQLSERVER is listening from the registry.
So by now, hope you have the complete flow of how connectivity happens from a client to SQL Server. To make sure SQL Server Browser is able to start (Port 1434 is available for SQL Server Browser to grab), you can try start SQL Server Browser from command line : C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\Shared This step will ensure that SQL Browser works fine.
If you are able to start SQL Server Browser from command line and not as a service, check the service account configured for SQL Server Browser.
This protocol will not help you to connect to a Clustered SQL Server instance because the IP address of SQL Server is different from your local node.
You can also force to use specific protocol using syntax: TCP: SQLSRVRNAME\INSTANCE for forcing connections to use TCP/IP protocol NP: SQLSRVNAME\INSTANCE for forcing connections to use Named Pipe protocol instead you can also use \.\pipe\instancename\sql\query LPC: SQLSRVNAME\INSTANCE for forcing connections to use Shared Memory protocol. If you force these protocols, then connectivity will happen only using specific protocol and if that fails, connection will fail without trying with further protocols.